A discography is a diagnostic procedure used on patients with back pain, typically for the purpose of planning surgery to the lower back. It involves the surgeon inserting a needle and obtaining the patient's response to determine the most effective approach to the surgery. Doctors most often use discography to plan a lumbar fusion.
A spinal cord stimulator transmits electrical signals directly to the spinal cord, primarily for the purpose of controlling chronic pain. The insertion of an spinal cord stimulator is a surgical procedure that requires a trial period to achieve satisfactory results. Physicians was often use this device to treat failed back surgery syndrome, although other conditions that cause back pain may also be suitable for treatment with SCS.
An epidural steroid injection is a surgical procedure that involves surrounding an inflamed spinal nerve with a steroid, which is a strong anti-inflammatory drug. The primary benefit of this procedure is to reduce irritation in the nerve, thereby relieving the patient's pain. Physicians often use an ESI to relieve the pain caused by an abnormal narrowing of the spinal canal, known medically as spinal stenosis.